|overview of IDM Best Practices|
|domains in IDM Best Practices|
|framework for IDM Best Practices|
|jottings from the editor|
|resource of the month|
|IDM Best Practices resources|
|best practices around the world|
|annotated general resources|
|guidelines for submissions|
|using website content|
Recommended by Rishia Burke, Burlington, Ontario. You use SurveyKey.com all on line. It helps you create a survey and tabulates your results. They produce very attractive charts. It is easy for people to click on it to provide their responses, and there is space for qualitative responses. You can use it for free for 30 days, for up to 50 responses. After that there is a charge.
Click here to read a profile of Rishia.
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Social determinants of health: the community as an empowered partner.
An article by S. Leonard Syme, in Preventing Chronic Disease [Volume 1, Number 1], January 2004, available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2004/jan/03_0001.htm
Recommended by website co-editor Barbara Kahan. This article is a wonderful discussion of key issues in public health such as:
The article is well thought out and is written in a very readable and engaging style. The author is Professor Emeritus of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley.
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The Ontario Health Promotion E-mail (OHPE) Bulletin
Recommended by Brian Hyndman. The OHPE Bulletin is a weekly newsletter for people interested in health promotion published by the Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse and the Health Communication Unit. The Bulletin provides information on workshops, conferences, job postings, issues and resources. The first section (events, announcements and job postings) is distributed by email every Friday afternoon. Second and third sections (features and resources) are included every other week. One helpful feature of the Bulletin is a searchable on-line archive of past issues that can be searched by keyword or through a subject matrix including: determinants of health, action areas of the Ottawa Charter, generic strategies (e.g., policy development), priority populations and issues.
Click here to read a reflection by Brian.
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Social Medicine Portal
a website developed by Matt Anderson, MD and Lanny Smith, MD, faculty members of the Department of Family and Social Medicine of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (New York)
Recommended by website co-editor Barbara Kahan. The Social Medicine Portal will be of interest to a wide range of people interested in the social determinants of health. According to the website, social medicine "seeks to understand how health, disease and social conditions are interrelated." Examples of topics listed on the website's menu include Health Activism, Community Health, and Social Medicine Resources. The menu topic Social Medicine A to Z lists an eclectic range of categories for exploration, such as domestic violence, equity, globalization, homelessness, race, and smoking.
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Estimating the required sample size for small populations
a tool developed by Evan Morris, EcoTech Research
Recommended by website co-editor Barbara Kahan. Estimating the required sample size for small populations is an easy-to-use tool identifies the sample size needed for those of us conducting surveys with small populations. This is very helpful to me, as my program evaluations involve populations smaller than, say the population of a city. The tool, based on an Excel spreadsheet, allows a person to enter the size of the total population, the desired confidence level for the survey results, and the degree of accuracy that would be acceptable. The tool then calculates the sample size of survey respondents required to meet these specifications.
Note: clicking on one of the links above will take you to a page with the heading "Downloads"; scroll down until you come to the subheading "Calculation of minimum sample sizes required for a survey." Then, to download the tool, click where it says "click here."
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Orientation to Health Promotion - References & Resources
Recommendations from Alison Stirling, Health Promotion Consultant, Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse
Recommended by website co-editor Barbara Kahan. Orientation to Health Promotion - References & Resources contains a list of resources selected by Alison Stirling, ideal as an introduction to health promotion ideas and materials. Included are key health promotion documents, websites, books, journals, and a bulletin and listserv. All except the books are available on the internet. The list is a great place to start for those feeling daunted by the overwhelming amount of material out there, and also handy for those wanting to find a hand-picked selection of health promotion "classics" in one place. Also included in this resource is a Summary of Health Promotion "Favourite Texts", as identified on CLICK4HP listserv.
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Report on the Proceedings from Best Practices At Home and Abroad: making health promotion decisions for the best results
Best Practices At Home and Abroad was sponsored by the Centre for Health Promotion (University of Toronto) and held in Toronto, September 2004.
Recommended by website co-editor Barbara Kahan. The Report on the Proceedings from Best Practices At Home and Abroad: making health promotion decisions for the best results (Toronto, September 2004) provides details on what is happening with best practices around the world, as presented by an international guest of honour from Australia and a number of other people from several parts of Canada (Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, and Ontario). The report contains an amazing amount of useful information, ranging from an extensive overview of best practices initiatives internationally to a number of first-hand perspectives on the successes and challenges of using one specific best practices approach, the IDM. In addition, participants heard about what is happening across Canada with best practices, practising health promotion with cultural sensitivity in South Pacific islands, the latest English- and French-language IDM resources, a Chronic Disease Prevention best practices project, and best practices in Atlantic Canada. Summaries at the beginning of each individual presentation make it easy for readers in a rush to glean the essence of the information.
Alliances Coalitions and Partnerships, Building Collaborative Organizations, Joan Roberts, New Society Publishers, 2004. This book can be purchased through www.joanroberts.com or www.newsociety.com at a cost of $24.99 plus tax.
Suggested by author Joan Roberts. Public participation is now recognized as a crucial component in a variety of fields including health, housing, community economic development, transportation and more. Often this means the involvement of multiple stakeholders, including non-profits, which must relate to both the community and to government, forming an organization of organizations, or a group of groups that come together to collaborate. While stakeholders are often pleased to participate, they often face the awkward problem of not really knowing how to do so most effectively.
This unique guide to building effective collaborative organizations deals head-on with this issue, describing the steps that managers, coordinators and practitioners might take to develop what I call a "trans-organizational system." Alliances, Coalitions and Partnerships presents a model for this type of organization, and considers a number of elements common to their successful functioning, including:
With a case study to illustrate the process and a useful bibliography, Alliances, Coalitions and Partnerships will appeal to a wide audience including community and social workers, health promoters, municipal government workers in land use, health and social services, staff of professional associations, non-profit agency executive directors, urban planners and environmentalists, and many more.
"This is an excellent resource for health promotion practitioners and students interested in understanding and working with 'Trans-organizational Structures.' Not only does it present the theory behind such structures in a clear and engaging manner, but it shows how to establish and work with such structures - which are increasingly part of health promotion practice - in the most effective and efficient way." Irving Rootman, Ph.D., Former Director, Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto.
editor's note: Joan Roberts is an award-winning organizational development consultant who provides training workshops on governance and community development. She has over 20 years experience designing and facilitating multi-stakeholder processes in housing, health promotion, municipal land use, and community development, and lives in Toronto. She can be reached through Joan Roberts Consulting ("Helping Large Systems Change"), email email@example.com, phone 416-523-0390, or visit website www.joanroberts.com. Click here to see Joan Robert's December reflection piece.
Best Practices in Tobacco Control: a Vision for Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan Coalition for Tobacco Reduction, 2004. Suggested by Lynn Greaves, a health promotion coordinator with Population and Public Health Services, Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region, and Chair of the Advocacy Committee of the Saskatchewan Coalition for Tobacco Reduction.
Lynn Greaves writes:
A new report, Best Practices in Tobacco Control: a Vision for Saskatchewan, has been released by the Saskatchewan Coalition for Tobacco Reduction, a provincial coalition of health groups. Based on a review of international, Canadian and provincial research, the report identifies the four "best practices" that have proven most effective in combating tobacco-related addiction, illness and death. They include:
The report also finds evidence of a reduction in the percentage of smokers in Saskatchewan as some of these best practices are being introduced. Other resources, including a powerpoint presentation and a "best practices" newsletter that goes out several times a year, are also available. For more information, contact Lynn Greaves at  766-7903.
Personal comment from Lynn Greaves: Four Saskatchewan people die every day from tobacco-related diseases. Working to reduce these numbers has been a most satisfying part of my life. I am rewarded whenever I meet a person with asthma who now can go out to public places without fearing an attack, or a worker whose health has improved by a smoke-free environment, or a parent who is grateful his child did not become addicted to tobacco industry products. I keep myself focused by remembering each day those Saskatchewan residents who are paying the ultimate price of a society that failed to protect them - usually when they were children - from an addiction that kills.
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Evidence4U and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) are two resources for people interested in exploring how to identify the quality of qualitative research. (They also have information on other topics.)
Once you register (this is free) on the Evidence4U site (or log in if you are already registered), click on "Appraising Information" on the menu on the left, then on "How to appraise qualitative research" at the bottom of the section. This link takes you to 10 questions with explanatory details, providing background information for the 10 questions asked in the CASP appraisal tool for qualitative research. According to the CASP site, their qualitative appraisal tool is designed to address issues of rigour, credibility and relevance.
One of the highlights of HP source "The Health Promotion Discovery Tool" is the database containing health promotion documents - from a number of European countries - in the following areas: Overview of Health Promotion per Country, Formulation of Policy, Evaluation of Policy, Monitoring, Suvey and Research, Implementation, Professional Workforce, Professional Associations, Funding. Other highlights range from a discussion on "what is health promotion" to a literature review which contains useful information on topics such as healthy public policy and health impact assessment.
The HP source project sounds very exciting. According to the website it "Aims to maximise the efficiency and effectiveness of health promotion policy, infrastructures and practice in Europe by:
Highly recommended by website editor Barbara Kahan: I like this weekly bulletin immensely. It is very rare that I don't find at least one item - a document, a website, an organization, a conference - of direct relevance to my work of the moment, whether I am evaluating an early childhood development initiative (or other health/social issues project) or developing a conceptual piece around best practices and health. The brief descriptions of each item, which come from a variety of sources and perspectives, are clear and informative. The Bulletin is available in English and French. Click here if you would like to subscribe; from this screen you can also view the most recent and previous E-Watch Bulletins, and search the archives.
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Public Health Code of Ethics of the American Public Health Association.
Highly recommended by website editor Barbara Kahan:The American Public Health Association's Code of Ethics includes key principles for ethical practice, and the key values and beliefs "upon which the ethical principles are based." It also includes a set of notes on the principles. These principles, values and beliefs provide an excellent example of what might be used to fill in part of the IDM Framework's column 1, which focuses on identifying general guidelines as a necessary step in preparing a solid foundation for action. The ethical principles range from the first, that "public health should address principally the fundamental causes of disease and requirements for health, aiming to prevent adverse health outcomes" to the last (the twelfth), that "public health institutions and their employees should engage in collaborations and affiliations in ways that build the public's trust and the institution's effectiveness."
The values/beliefs are divided into the categories of health, community, and bases for action. Two examples of these eleven values/beliefs follow:
The perspective that the ethical principles and values and beliefs illustrate are very compatible with the holistic approach of the IDM.
Feasibility Study into Housing for People with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder by Lisa Brownstone for the Regina FASD Community Network, the Saskatchewan Fetal Alcohol Support Network and the Regina Community Clinic. An electronic version is available by emailing the Saskatchewan Fetal Alcohol Support Network.
Lisa Brownstone writes:
Recently The Housing Feasibility Study for People with FASD was completed. Funded by the National Homelessness Initiative, and focusing on Regina, the study provides rich detail regarding people with FASD, housing and supports. The lives of the 14 people living with FASD were explored through interviews with people with FASD and parents of people with FASD.
The study was a highly collaborative process that involved interviews with those working with community, municipal, provincial, federal, First Nations and Métis organizations, and with some supported housing options outside of Regina. Recommendations included development of a three-pronged approach, including:
Email the Saskatchewan Fetal Alcohol Support Network for an electronic version of this study.
The Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion
In August, participants at the 6th Global Conference on Health Promotion in Bangkok, Thailand will discuss the first new health promotion Charter since the 1986 Ottawa Charter. To read the current draft of the Bangkok Charter and commentaries on the draft, or to make comments of your own, go to www.rhpeo.org.
Non-work Fun & Relaxation
This website is a volunteer effort on my part and I wouldn't do it if it didn't give me great pleasure. I also enjoy my paid work. However, whether paid or unpaid, work is work and doesn't provide the same kind of relaxation and fun a person can have when they're not working. And since I believe that the relaxation and fun a person has outside of work can make work itself easier and better in a number of ways, my suggested resource this month is - ta da - non-work relaxation and fun.So, everyone, have a great rest of the summer and enjoy your holidays if you haven't already had them.
Suggested by website editor Barbara Kahan: Based on the approach that the "best" communication method for health promotion, public health and promotion will vary depending on the audience and circumstance, I have picked Poetry Magic as a resource of the month for those who want to explore poetry as a way to communicate. Poetry Magic is fun to visit. Divided into beginner and advanced sections, it has discussions on all sorts of topics ranging from what is poetry, poetry as therapy, and shaping a poem, to truth in poetry and poetry movements. The site also contains a number of resources, for example a list of websites which contain poems. Whether you are interested in reading poetry, writing poetry, or just curious to find out what it's all about, this is an interesting and informative site to go to.
Dayna Albert (Program Coordinator, The Dissemination of Best and Promising Practices in Chronic Disease Prevention Project) writes: The Best + Promising Practices Toolkit - Heart Health Resource Centre's on-line searchable compendium of community-based, multi-risk factor programs - is accessible via the Heart Health Resource Centre's Website at www.hhrc.net/bpt. The compendium currently contains 87 community-based interventions targeted at a variety of audiences and within a variety of settings and addressing stroke-prevention, diabetes-prevention and heart health. Each addresses at least two of the following risk factors: Physical activity, nutrition and tobacco.
The interventions were identified through a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature and nominated scan conducted by the University of Waterloo's Health Behaviour Research Group (now the Population Health Group) from 2002 to 2004.
The Matrix Search option identifies all relevant interventions by any two combinations of risk factor, setting and audience. The Full Text search option searches for a specific program by title (e.g. Ottawa Heart Beat or Physical Activity and Teenage Health) or a number of other fields e.g. setting, chronic disease, rating (best or promising practices) etc.
The template for each intervention report includes:
The strength of this resource is its accessibility, ease of use and wide range of chronic disease prevention interventions. One drawback is that a mechanism for updating the database is yet to be developed.
The resource will be useful in planning community-based chronic disease prevention programs to learn what the literature shows to be an effective program and/or to borrow elements of effective programs to strengthen an existing program.
Social determinants of health: the solid facts. 2nd edition/edited by Richard Wilkinson and Michael Marmot. World Health Organization, 2003.
Recommended by website editor Barbara Kahan: Social determinants of health: the solid facts contains brief sections on the following determinants: the social gradient, stress, early life, social exclusion, work, unemployment, social support, addiction, food, and transport. Each section of the document briefly lists what is known about the determinant, policy implications, and key sources. The information is presented in an easy to read format and easy to understand style, and includes some striking photographs.
The mission of The Pathways to Education Program, according to its website, "is to reduce poverty and its effects by supporting the development of youth from economically disadvantaged communities and promoting their individual health and the health of the community by addressing the two principal social determinants of health: education and income." It is aimed at youth in Regent Park in Toronto, "the oldest and largest public housing project in Canada. The average family income is $18,000 per year, less than half that of other Canadians." Again according to the website, "Before Pathways, the high school dropout rate in Regent Park was 56%, twice the city average... June 2005 marks the first year that a cohort of Pathways kids will graduate high school. More than half of our first cohort will be graduating (after four years); with the majority of these going on to college and university... A year from now, we expect to find over 75% of Pathways first cohort has graduated which would mean the dropout rate had been reduced by over two-thirds!" Pathways achieves its success through a combination of supports such as tutoring four nights a week and a bursary towards post secondary education. For more details visit the website. Thank you to Lisa Brownstone for suggesting this program.
Gerard Molleman, Director, Centre for Knowledge and Quality Management at the Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (NIGZ), Woerden, Netherlands, and Henriette Kok, senior health promotion specialist for the Municipal Health Service (GGD West Brabant) in Breda, Netherlands, describe Preffi 2.0:
What is Preffi?
Preffi stands for Health Promotion Effect Management Instrument. Preffi 2.0 is an effect management instrument intended to help health promotion specialists improve the effectiveness of their interventions by applying the Preffi criteria and guidelines. These criteria reflect both research findings on effect predictors and practitioners' knowledge about effectiveness, including aspects like context and project management. The instrument can be applied to individual health promotion interventions, projects involving multiple interventions or entire programmes consisting of multiple projects. New versions of the instrument will be periodically produced. The idea is to create a learning system that can shape the dynamic relation between researchers and practitioners.
There are still many opportunities to improve the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. To achieve such improvements, it is necessary not only to develop and disseminate model programmes, but also to stimulate local health promotion specialists to apply general principles and guidelines for effectiveness in their daily routine. The use of Preffi as a diagnostic quality instrument should help achieve this.
Developer and users.
The Preffi is developed by the Centre for Quality and Knowledge Management of the Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (NIGZ) in close collaboration with Dutch health promotion practitioners and researchers. The first version of the Preffi, the 1.0 version, was developed in 1995 and has undergone an extensive trajectory of renewal. Preffi 2.0 was introduced in January 2003. The development process of Preffi 2.0 combines and incorporates experiences with the application of Preffi 1.0, the expertise of practitioners and new scientific insights. Preffi is primarily intended to be used by health promotion and prevention practitioners. Almost all practitioners in the Netherlands are by now familiar with the Preffi 2.0 and more then 50% of them use the Preffi. The Preffi is also helpful for managers of health promotion institutions, research centres, policy makers and funding organisations.
Structure of Preffi 2.0
Preffi 2.0 consists of 8 clusters. Each cluster is subdivided into a number of criteria that can be scored on "weak," "moderate" or "strong." With the help of these scores every cluster and the whole project can be given a report mark. Based on these assessments, points for improvement can be identified and actions can be formulated.
Preffi 2.0 consists of a Scoring form, an Assessment Package and an Explanatory Guide Preffi 2.0, which are all available in English on the website of the NIGZ - click here. Soon these documents will also be available in French. Gerard Molleman, the project manager of Preffi, has written a thesis on Preffi 2.0. You can download the summary of this thesis - click here.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: The mission of COMM-ORG, supported by the University of Wisconsin (Department of Rural Sociology and Extension Center for Community and Economic Development) "is to link academics and activists, and theory and practice, toward the goal of improving community organizing and its related crafts." Go to the website to find information about COMM-ORG's list-serv, its collection of papers related to community organizing "from students, faculty, practitioners, and others," its collection of teaching resources, and its links to other resources, for example related to action research, policy, health organizing, and multimedia. COMM-ORG's belief that "community organizers and academics can both benefit by exchanging information and resources" is very relevant to this month's theme of merging different kinds of knowledge to create new knowledge. Thank you to Lisa Brownstone for suggesting COMM-ORG as a resource of the month. I had not heard of it before and am looking forward to exploring its website more.
Ali Kilbourn, Project Assistant, The Health Communication Unit's Workplace Project, writes: Comprehensive Workplace Health Promotion: Recommended and Promising Practices for Situational Assessment Tools contains information about 29 recommended and promising situational assessment tools in six categories: needs assessments, health risk appraisals, workplace audits, employee interest surveys, current practice surveys, and organizational culture surveys.
It is designed to help workplace health promotion intermediaries to: select and implement a situational assessment tool in their workplace, and replicate and/or adapt the best practice process used to generate the tools. The resource also provides a conceptual look at CWHP, situational assessment tools and best practice; guidelines and principles related to situational assessment tools; methodological information; and future recommendations for the project. Although created for users within an Ontario context, the resource would be helpful for those outside Ontario.
Note that intermediaries, for whom the resource is designed, are: Those who provide (or have the potential to provide) direction and support to people in workplaces about how to provide employee workplace health promotion. Intermediaries may include those in public health departments, municipal governments, unions, human resource associations, private sector organizations (for profit), employer organizations, organizations that provide health and/or safety services to workplaces, and non-governmental organizations such as community health centres. Although intermediaries are the resource's main audience, other workplace health promotion stakeholders may also find the resource helpful. This would include: workplace health practitioners, occupational health nurses, workplace wellness committees, workplace wellness coordinators, human resource managers, and union representatives.
Peter Jones, Clinical Specialist: NHS Care Records Service Project/Informatics, Bolton, Lancashire, UK, writes: Originally created in the UK by Brian E Hodges - Hodges' Health Career - Care Domains - Model [h2cm] - can help map health, social care and other issues, problems AND solutions. The model takes a situated and multi-contextual view across four knowledge domains:
In addition to explaining the model and its holistic scope, our links pages cover each care (knowledge) domain e.g. Sociology. Our interpersonal links may be of particular relevance. There are various nooks and crannies to explore: assumptions, holism, Links to Health Protection & Promotion/Change Theory, Brian Hodges' original notes... One future development will be a link inviting material from contributors who use the model. A paper is under review relating Hodges' model to the work of philosopher Michel Serres: "A Serresian Atlas, Hodges' Domains and the Fusion of Caring Horizons."
Useful resources for community change
Mark Cabaj, Vice President, Tamarack Institute, suggests the following resources for people interested in community change:
Best Practice of Inclusive Services is found on the website of The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability (University of Illinois at Chicago). It contains a number of different sections related to inclusion issues, such as definition of inclusion, inclusion as a value, and overcoming barriers to inclusion. The content is based on a real life example: "Using different approaches of system change, Together We Play, an inclusion program and partnership led by the Black Hawk YMCA, and the Inclusion and Accessibility Services of the St. Paul JCC have been able to successfully cultivate an inclusive attitude within their agencies." For anyone who wants a brief and basic introduction to the topic of inclusion this is a good place to start.
Sara MacDougall, "Client Education and Support" The Quaich Inc., writes: The Circle of Health© is both a dynamic framework for health promotion and a tangible tool. Constructed using the theoretical frameworks of the determinants of health, the Ottawa Charter, and the First Nations Medicine Wheel, the Circle of Health has a wide range of applications.
This tool is relevant to community, health, justice, economic, business, and environmental issues which intersect with and influence individual and community well-being. It stimulates the user to search for good information, best practices and creative solutions. Developed in Prince Edward Island, Canada, the Circle of Health continues to gain popularity nationally and internationally. The Circle of Health Kit contains an interactive tool, Learning Guide and Background document. It is available in French and English, and has been translated into Spanish. $25.00/kit.
The Circle of Health provides a picture of the components of health promotion at-a-glance. By moving the five rings that make up the Circle of Health, you can line up many possible interactions within and between the components. It can help you to understand health promotion as a very dynamic process which involves many people and strategies.
Users of the Circle of Health may also join the online community Our Circle. Membership is free!
The goal of Our Circle is to:
The Circle of Health © 1996, PEI Health and Community Services Agency, All Rights Reserved.
Please visit www.ourcircle.com for more information, or contact:
Patsy Beattie-Huggan, The Quaich Inc., 25 Bolger Drive, Charlottetown, PE C1A 7T2
Resources for Inclusion
Peggy Schultz, Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse, suggestions the following resources for people interested in exploring the topic of inclusion.
Resources for Children's Mental Health and Social Competency
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: Recently I posted a request on the listserv CLICK4HP regarding children's mental health promotion and social competence. A number of people responded, suggesting the following resources (listed in no particular order!).
Resources for Popular Education
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: During our interview, Warren Linds suggested two popular education resources: the Catalyst Centre and the book Educating for a Change (Rick Arnold, Bev Burke, Carl James, D'Arcy Martin, and Barb Thomas: Between the Lines Press, Toronto, 1991).
According to its website, "The Catalyst Centre celebrates and promotes innovative learning, popular education, research and community development to advance positive social change." The Centre has programs such as community change courses, a resources collection, and a participatory budgetting. The Centre's Popular Education Map provides annotated links to Canadian and international groups supporting popular education.
Warren Linds uses Educating for a Change as a reference for his work. It is described as follows on Grass Root Press's website:
Educating for a Change is an essential resource for community and literacy educators who are committed to education for social change. Throughout the book, theory is integrated with practical activities and examples of a transformative approach to social change. The spiral model, which is a cyclical process that begins with sharing the participants' experiences and knowledge, analyzing and building on their experience, and planning for action is described in detail.
The Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) is a project of Ontario Public Health Research, Education & Development Program (PHRED). Its website provides reviews of effective public health interventions for practitioners, managers and policy makers on a range of topics such as: Coalitions in Heart Health Promotion, Tobacco Use Reduction, and Injury Prevention; Interventions to Improve Low Birth Weight; Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescents; Workplace-Based Health Risk Appraisal.
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The Canadian Best Practices Portal for Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention is part of the Canadian Best Practices System, "a project of the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control (CCDPC) within the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)." The portal provides descriptions and resources for eight areas, for example "base decisions on evidence" and "employ mechanisms for public involvement." In addition, there is a search funciton for "best practice interventions." The project definition of best practice(s) is: "Population / community-based interventions spanning a variety of approaches (i.e. policy, programs, media, etc...) aimed at health promotion, disease prevention and management related to chronic disease that have been informed by and result in evidence of effectiveness to inform decision-makers in practice, policy and research within a variety of settings (i.e. health, education, workplace, urban, rural, etc.) and populations (i.e. male and female across the lifespan, Aboriginal, families, etc...)."
The IDM Manual: a guide to the IDM (Interactive Domain Model) Best Practices Approach to Better Health and Guide d'utilisation du Modèle des domaines interactifs (MDI) pour établir les meilleures pratiques en promotion de la santé
The English language Interactive Domain Model Manual and the French language Guide d'utilisation du Modèle des domaines interactifs provide a good grounding for anyone who wants an overview of this comprehensive best practices approach.
Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap ... And Others Don't (Jim Collins, Harper Collins, 2001)
Catherine Macpherson, in the interview for this month's profile and reflection, commented on Good to Great: "This book was recommended reading from the CEO of Ceridian. It talks about the singularity and effectiveness of what a hedgehog does, it's a survivor - when a predator is coming the hedgehog curls up in a ball and defends itself effectively. Now when we do something in the company we ask if it's part of our hedgehog focus. Defining what we are singularly best at gave us a framework to say 'does it fit our focus' or 'that's not working, that doesn't fit.'"
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: Place Matters: Improving the Health of Canadians in Urban Settings is a 2006 publication of the Canadian Institute for Health Information. This report, according to the website, "reviews evidence on how health may be linked to aspects of the places in which Canadians live and work. Focusing on urban contexts, Place Matters synthesizes existing research and presents new analyses looking specifically at health in relation to aspects of housing, urban planning and transport." I have found it helpful for a project I am working on related to housing.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: The three steps outlined in 1-2-3 IDM Quick Start for using the IDM best practices approach for health promotion, public health and population health are:
Each step identifies resources to read or people to talk to. The intent of 1-2-3 IDM Quick Start is to simplify the process of applying the IDM to practice.
Regina Early Learning Centre
September's resource of the month is the Regina Early Learning Centre. A full case study of the Regina Early Learning Centre is included in Appendix I of Interactive Domain Model (IDM) Best Practices Approach to Better Health: Followup to IDM Use and Impacts. The summary of this case study, prepared by David Groulx (see this month's reflection), is presented below. This case study summary is the first in a series of six.
The Regina Early Learning Centre, governed by a board consisting of mostly parents, is a child and family development centre offering a range of programs for children, prenatal to school entry, and their parents. The ELC has worked for three decades to achieve healthy child development for low income families. The Regina Early Learning Centre (ELC) presents an organization which long before the IDM came into being was using an approach to practice very similar to that recommended by the IDM. Pre-dating the IDM by two decades, the ELC has from its beginning integrated into its practice foundation pieces such as values, evidence and an understanding of the environment. Similar to the IDM, the ELC approach stresses the importance of ongoing reflection and evaluation with the aim of continuous improvement.
In 2002 the ELC's then executive director and teaching staff used the IDM Check-In Forms to check consistency between the ELC's practice and other IDM-identified domains. This reflective exercise was part of the evaluation conducted for the years 1999-2002. Utilizing the IDM check-in two goals were identified which included: to equalize educational opportunities for children and to work cooperatively with the parents towards the achievement of this goal.
Social justice was an underlying principal from the organization's inception. This principle was based on observation and experience that society marginalizes some people. In the case of the Early Learning Centre parents, most were marginalized by racism and poverty as a result of culture contact and ongoing colonization.
Other values espoused by the staff included concepts such as healthy development, respectful and mutual relationships, empowerment, cultural diversity and others. Ethical constructs included aspects such as respect for people, oneself and the environment, ongoing reflection of actions, confidentiality and promoting the common good. Through the check-in, staff at the ELC staff expressed how beliefs are translated into practice. Such beliefs that all children have the right to grow and learn in a supportive environment that is sensitive to their needs and that a child's parents are their first teachers were outlined.
Children's learning theory from Reggio Emilia, High Scope theory, adult learning theory, family literacy theories, developmentally appropriate practices, curriculum, strength based approach and constructivist theory were all expressed as theories that are utilized by the organization.
The use of the IDM Check-in allowed the ELC to participate in a reflective process, which was not new to this progressive organization. The ELC regularly reviews goals, values, underlying beliefs, theories/concepts, and new knowledge, with an aim to integrating them into daily practice. "By constantly reflecting on our work, and the beliefs and values that underpin all activities, we deepen our understanding and improve our skills and knowledge."
With its strong emphasis on ongoing reflection and review and on integrating values, theories, evidence and other foundation pieces into practice, the ELC has had a strong impact on children, parents and the broader community. Evaluation results showed positive results for children participating in the preschool in the three areas reviewed: cognitive, language, and social emotional development. The evaluation's key informant interviews indicated that the ELC's impacts on the broader community included "dissemination of knowledge and expertise, providing a model for other organizations, coordination with other initiatives, parents with increased skills who go on to participate in other organizations, and an increase in equality between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people."
L’Association des Communautés Francophone de l’Ontario-Toronto (L’ACFO-TO)
October's resource of the month is L’Association des Communautés Francophone de l’Ontario-Toronto (L’ACFO-TO). A full case study of this group is included in Appendix I of Interactive Domain Model (IDM) Best Practices Approach to Better Health: Followup to IDM Use and Impacts. The summary of this case study, prepared by David Groulx, is presented below. This case study summary is the second in a series of six.
L’Association des Communautés Francophone de l’Ontario-Toronto (L’ACFO-TO) is a regional chapter of a provincial Franco-Ontarian grassroots volunteer-based organization. This chapter services one of the largest urban centers in Canada with Francophones displaced throughout the city. Up until recently the organisation focused mostly on Francophone-rights advocacy work until funders of all the ACFOs in Ontario reduced their financial support. Many of the regional ACFOs then were facing major financial crisis, including L’ACFO-TO. The organization was in the process of closing its door when a group of visionary Francophones took over the organisation in 2003 and created a new direction.
Currently, the purpose of L’ACFO-TO is to assist the approximately 300,000 Francophone’s and Francophiles of Toronto to value the French language in order to avoid assimilation into the predominantly English-speaking society. Objectives of the group range from promotion of the Francophone cultures, language and service to developing the Francophone social economy. "L’ACFO-TO attempts to do this by creating community engagement initiatives and an awareness of the continuum of various services in French."
Since 2004 L’ACFO-TO has used the Modèle des Domaines Interactifs (MDI - the French-language version of the IDM) to plan and implement their activities such as the Francophone community builders initiative and the Community Leadership and Capacity Development program. In addition, L’ACFO-TO has also used the MDI as a learning tool, to teach strategic thinking in the leadership program, and as a way to increase credibility with funders.
The MDI was introduced to the organization by one of its board members who had participated in the adaption of the English language IDM materials to the Francophone context, and facilitated a number of French-language workshops to test the model and materials. L’ACFO-TO uses the questions inherent in the MDI as a guide and "a reference tool" at each committee meeting. Exploring MDI foundation pieces such as values is conducted as a group process. The group modified the MDI to give it more meaning to the group members, utilizing the complete model or sections depending on what they feel is most applicable to the task at hand.
Using the MDI, fundamental values that are humanistic and democratic have been explored, such as diversity and inclusion. Theories shaping L'ACFO-TO’s activities include those related to social marketing, linguistics, social psychology, community development, adult education, vocational, post-modernism, and health promotion. Beliefs such as building community one person at a time as well as everyone has something to contribute have been identified, building upon the concepts of inclusion and belonging.
Using the MDI has resulted in a number of benefits for L’AFCO-TO. It has helped to facilitate both internal and external communication, increased the planning skills of L’ACFO-TO members, and has increased reflective practice within the organization. Moreover, employing the MDI has improved group consensus and synergy allowing everyone to be part of the strategic thinking as well as increasing consistency in decision making and planning processes. The model also has assisted in the development and understanding of ethical principles, increased rigour in activity planning, assisted with resource procurement, organizational development and, finally, has helped shape the blueprint for the future of the organization.
Toronto Public Health Practice Framework
November's resource of the month is Toronto Public Health Practice Framework. A full case study of this group is included in Appendix I of Interactive Domain Model (IDM) Best Practices Approach to Better Health: Followup to IDM Use and Impacts. The summary of this case study, prepared by David Groulx, is presented below. This case study summary is the third in a series of six.
In 1997 Toronto amalgamated with five other municipalities to become a mega-city with a population of 2.5 million. Recognizing the increased cultural and linguistic diversity, growing social and economic disparities and the emergence of globalized infectious diseases, Toronto Public Health produced the Toronto Public Health Practice Framework (TPHPF) to guide its practice . The Framework aims to support Toronto Public Health and its members in integrating social justice, access and equity principals into its programs and services. This case study explores the role that the IDM played in the development of the TPHPF, more specifically, how two domains of the IDM were incorporated into the creation of nine sub-domains or underpinnings of the TPHPF. It highlights how this framework was applied to the development and implementation of a multi-year social marketing campaign addressing chlamydia and the importance that the Framework plays in promoting professional reflexivity and continuous quality improvement.
The Willet Hospital/Brant Community HealthCare System
December/January's resource of the month is The Willet Hospital/Brant Community HealthCare System. A full case study of this group is included in Appendix I of Interactive Domain Model (IDM) Best Practices Approach to Better Health: Followup to IDM Use and Impacts. The summary of this case study, prepared by David Groulx, is presented below. This case study summary is the fourth in a series of six.
In 1999 when the IDM was introduced to the Willett Hospital as part of the pilot testing of the IDM and its operational framework the hospital was undergoing integration with two other hospitals to form the new Brant Community HealthCare System (BCHS). At this time the Willett Hospital, a small rural hospital in southern Ontario, provided both traditional hospital services (ranging from in-patient chronic and acute care to out-patient clinics and urgent care) and outreach community services in association with its volunteer Community Well Being Team (CWBT).
The Willet Hospital initially applied the IDM Framework to the topic of teen health. The need to address this issue had been identified in a Health Status report (Brant County District Health Council) as well as anecdotally through the CWBT. The IDM was utilized to help identify goals relating to teen health. The CWBT and staff members worked through the IDM model exploring values such as community and individual needs, community participation, tolerance, emotional health, betterment of community, respect and trust. Examples of beliefs that were explored included that programs should be grass roots and role models are important. Theories such as health promotion theory, developmental theory and the Transtheoretical model were drawn from.
The IDM was introduced utilizing a multi-step process which included a scan of participant understanding of health promotion and two two-day workshops focusing on the introduction of health promotion concepts and the IDM framework. Following the second workshop, work continued on the framework with continued communication with the facilitators, including phone conversations, a half-day site visit and two meetings with the facilitators and other pilot sites. The group continued to utilize the IDM model as well as the newly developed IDM computer program after the end of the funded project and maintained communication with the facilitators.
A number of benefits resulted from the utilization of the IDM including: an increase in the profile of health promotion within the organization; skill enhancement for staff and volunteers; a refocus of approaches to health promotion by the CWBT; and a systemic approach to doing gap analysis. In addition, using the IDM helped the organization understand and manage the internal and external enabling and obstructing factors. After the initial implementation the IDM was applied in other aspects of the organization including quality improvement and accreditation preparation. Furthermore the use of the IDM acted as the foundation for a rural health initiative with Health Canada funding which expanded CWBTs to four other rural communities.
Womankind Addiction Service
February's resource of the month is Womankind Addiction Service Case Study. A full case study of this group is included in Appendix I of Interactive Domain Model (IDM) Best Practices Approach to Better Health: Followup to IDM Use and Impacts. The summary of this case study, prepared by David Groulx, is presented below. This case study summary is the fifth in a series of six.
Located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Womankind Addiction Services' mission is to provide effective and compassionate withdrawal management and substance use treatment to all women. Its program components include 24-hour telephone support, withdrawal management, a 5-week treatment program, pre-treatment, and aftercare groups, emergency shelter beds and support and recreational groups.
The IDM was introduced to Women's Detox and Mary Ellis House team members in 2001 in the preliminary stages of a merger resulting in Womankind Addiction Service (part of St. Joseph's Healthcare). The merger, a product of a regionalization and rationalization review directed by the Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, included amalgamation of a withdrawal management and treatment services. This type of amalgamation was a rarity in the province; few models, limited evidence and little experience existed to bring these services together. Staff initially participated in a project, which introduced the IDM and its evidence framework. Continued use of the IDM was facilitated under the guidance of Womankind's manager who was very familiar with the IDM and had been involved in the original group, which shaped the IDM framework.
Being part of St. Joseph's Healthcare has shaped the key values underlying Womankind's approach, such as dignity and respect, compassionate and sensitive care to clients and families, and a commitment to making a difference in people's lives and community. Working through the IDM, Womankind staff identified that providing a complete range of services to women in one place and seeing these same women over a long period of time as a key belief underlying the approach they should take to assist women in their journey. A second Womankind belief is that knowledge /evidence is multi-layered and being open to various types of knowledge /evidence is essential in achieving a quality approach.
To enhance knowledge uptake with a consideration for changing current programming, Womankind initiated a number of evidence gathering activities such as evaluation based on goals and objectives, a "grounding" process based on literature reviews, client input, and staff knowledge and experience, and information from a database designed to track women's progress throughout their involvement in any of the services.
The organization began using the Interactive Domain Model (IDM) with an interest in better understanding the needs of women who relapsed and what programming would help them. Initially the IDM was used to frame how the organization went about planning and incorporating best practices into its work. The end product was the development of a new addiction program and service for women based on the current best practices. The IDM continues to be used not only to build the organization's strategic direction but as a tool for values clarification and a filter to ensure organizational practices are meeting its stated values and mission.
The results of participating in and utilizing the IDM have included an increase in skills, confidence and understanding related to the application of best practices and what constitutes knowledge / evidence. Working through the IDM process brought forth the realization that defining the real question is the most important step in the evidence framework. Moreover, the process of working through the model unified two previously separate teams. Involvement in the process also ensured the developed of the mission and values statements that continue to be the guiding principles for the program and through which all program changes and additions are filtered.
March-April's resource of the month is Leade Health/Ceridian Case Study. A full case study of this group is included in Appendix I of Interactive Domain Model (IDM) Best Practices Approach to Better Health: Followup to IDM Use and Impacts. The summary of this case study, prepared by David Groulx, is presented below. This case study summary is the sixth in a series of six.
In late 2006, Ceridian LifeWorks acquired Leade Health Inc., a company focused on the delivery and development of health coaching, addressing areas such as nutrition and physical activity, tobacco cessation and stress management in order to facilitate overall health and wellbeing. Health coaching is a collaborative partnership between coach and client that facilitates lifestyle change through initiating self-discovery and utilizing behavioral evidence-based methods. Delivery of services is primarily conducted over the phone with some coaching occurring online.
In 2006 Leade Health Inc. located in Michigan, USA, identified that there were no defined health coaching best practices in existence. It was at this point that Leade Health adopted the IDM. The IDM was introduced to Leade Health Inc. by Catherine Macpherson following internet research. She provided and reviewed the published papers with the CEO. This led to preliminary work on the model with the CEO and quality assurance personnel. Following this initial work the model was introduced to the whole company in an in-person session as well as in a phone session with frontline workers. The purpose of using the IDM was twofold. Firstly, the organization wanted to achieve and maintain the highest quality in coaching services, and, secondly, they wanted to establish best practices that could serve as a model for their industry.
Working through the IDM, Leade Health Inc. identified its organizational vision as a truly supportive interpersonal coaching environment. Values identified by the organization ranged from the importance of individuals being supported to achieve goals and personal successes to philanthropic notions of the organization supporting health-related charities. Key theoretical constructs utilized within the organization included the transtheoretical model and Carl Rogers' client-centered approach to behaviour change as well as others. Evidence gathered for the program development included several sources including literature searches, surveys and program evaluations.
The organization has utilized the IDM model for program planning and evaluation, organizational change, evidence gathering, team building, values clarification and as an everyday approach to work. It is still being used since the takeover by Ceridian to ensure consistency between all domains. Results of utilizing the IDM within the organization included fine tuning their designs and enhanced coach training through developing competencies. In addition, using the IDM assisted in unification and synergy within and among the organization and its members.
Culture Counts: A roadmap to health promotion
Recommended by website editor Barbara Kahan. Culture Counts: A roadmap to health promotion is a guide developed by a partnership of eight organizations to help "create effective health promotion initiatives with ethnocultural communities that move towards the goal of ensuring that everyone has an equal opportunity to enjoy good health."
The guide has seven chapters:
It also includes a glossary and resources. This resource uses the IDM definition of best practices.
Guidelines for Participatory Research in Health
Recommended by website editor Barbara Kahan. According to its website, the resource Guidelines for Participatory Research in Health has two purposes: "to appraise whether proposals for funding as participatory research meet participatory research criteria" and to "be used as a checklist by academic and community researchers in planning their projects." The guidelines consist of six sets of questions organized under the following categories:
The guidelines are based on the following report: Study of Participatory Research in Health Promotion: Review and Recommendations for the Development of Participatory Research in Health Promotion in Canada. Green LW, George A, Daniel M, Frankish CJ, Herbert CP, Bowie WR, O'Neill M. Ottawa: Royal Society of Canada, 1995.
Canadian Coalition of Women in Engineering, Science, Trades and Technology
Valerie Overend suggests: Canadian Coalition of Women in Engineering, Science, Trades and Technology (CCWESTT ) website. CCWESTT is an umbrella organization of 25 member organizations all working in Canada, doing things like science camps, mentoring programs, career fairs, working with universities or industry - all working with girls and women to promote women working in SETT (Science, Engineering, Trades and Technology) workplaces. There are conference proceedings, reports, statistics and all sorts of contacts and information on the website.
The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada
Barbara Kahan recommends: The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada. This report takes a strong determinants of health approach. It contains six chapters:
"Whatever It Takes" to Teach Kids
Laura Burkhart suggests: "Whatever It Takes" to Teach Kids. Geoffrey Canada and Paul Tough, author of the book Whatever It Takes: Geoffrey Canada's Quest to Change Harlem and America, discuss the Harlem Children's Zone with Terry Gross. Click on "Listen Now" on the NPR (National Public Radio) website to hear the discussion. The website provides a short introduction to the discussion. The Harlem Children's Zone uses an approach which integrates educational, social and health services to support the healthy development of low-income children.
Health Promotion and Public Health Glossaries of Terms
Four examples of health promotion and public health glossaries of terms follow. They vary in terms of how extensive they are and organization.
Z. Sonia Worotynec writes: immigrantchildren.ca is a site for connection, collaboration and action on behalf of very young immigrant children, birth to age eight, and their parents. It is a blog where I post news, current issues, new initiatives, conference announcements, recent research and reports that may be of interest to others who are studying, working with or researching immigrant children/family issues. I welcome comments!
immigrantchildren.ca was first set up in the fall of 2007 as a volunteer contribution to the Canadian Coalition for Immigrant Children and Youth (CCICY). The CCICY is an ad-hoc voluntary organization of people with an interest in advocating for more and better services for immigrant children and youth and their families.
The photograph in the banner on immigrantchildren.ca is of the British "home children" arriving in Saint John, New Brunswick as part of the child emigration scheme (1826-1939) and represents my interest in the history of immigrant children in Canada. The child emigration schemes brought children to Canada to meet labour needs - with many children, as young as 5, working on farms and serving as domestic servants.
TEIP Program Evidence Tools
The following description of TEIP Program Evidence Tools was submitted by Dayna Albert; copyright (2008) is held by Towards Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP), Ontario Public Health Association, Toronto, Canada.
The TEIP Program Evidence Tools are a set of guidelines and worksheets that provide step-by-step support to identify and apply relevant sources of evidence to strengthen local health promotion and chronic disease prevention programming.
The Tools were developed in response to a need expressed by health promoters in Ontario for a set of systematic and practical guidelines and tools to facilitate the process of searching for and applying evidence to strengthen local program planning and implementation.
Development of the TEIP Program Evidence Tools
An extensive internet search of existing tools for evidence-based practice was undertaken. In addition, TEIP staff completed a five day course on Evidence-based Practice for Health Professionals - Public Health Stream at McMaster University. An Expert Advisory Committee was struck. Membership included researchers and academics in the fields of health promotion, knowledge exchange and evaluation as well as a frontline health promotion practitioner representing the intended audience for the tools.
Guiding Principles Informing Tool Development
A draft set of Tools was piloted in four Ontario communities. Feedback from a rigorous independent evaluation (both formative and process) guided the revision of the current set of Tools.
TEIP Program Evidence Tools - The Steps
(Note: TEIP provides an explanation of each of the steps, available on the website.)
Using a health promotion framework with an 'Aboriginal lens'
The 2008 Making Two Worlds Work Project - Using a health promotion framework with an 'Aboriginal lens' - was developed by Mungabareena Aboriginal Corporation and Women's Health Goulburn North East. This Australian resource, which is extremely IDM compatible, explores each of the framework's ten components:
IDM Best Practices Website
In honour of its fifth birthday, website editor Barbara Kahan recommends the IDM Best Practices website as resource of the month. The website is designed for people working in health promotion, public health and population health. It has four features that change ten times a year (the first day of every month except August and January): profile of someone in the world's best practices community, a best practices' reflection, jottings from the editor, and, of course a resource of the month. Past features can be read in the website's archives. The website also contains descriptions of the IDM (Interactive Domain Model) best practices approach and how to apply it, a wide range of materials relating to the IDM best practices approach, and sections on general best practices resources.
The website's five year collection of resources of the month is eclectic. In between 1-2-3- IDM Quick Start and Womankind Addiction Service are all sorts of other wonderful aids to practice such as: Culture Counts: A roadmap to health promotion; Place Matters: Improving the Health of Canadians in Urban Settings; and Using a health promotion framework with an 'Aboriginal lens.'
Two Nuclear Power and Public Health Resources
Two resources which provide information related to nuclear power and public health follow.
Nuclear Power and Public Health, Richard W. Clapp, Environmental Health Perspectives, 113 (11), November 2005. This guest editorial discusses "what is now known about the health and environmental risks of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on the lessons of the past 60 years," such as impact of accidents and health effects on workers and residents.
Is Nuclear Power a Green Alternative? This discussion, from the Saskatchewan Eco Network, lists seven concerns about nuclear power, for example cost, nuclear waste storage, and potential for catastrophic accidents.
Slow Movement Resources
Two resources which provide information related to the slow movement follow.
Carl Honoré Q & A: Carl Honoré is the author of In Praise of Slow: How A Worldwide Movement Is Challenging the Cult of Speed. He advocates: "Doing everything as well as possible, instead of as fast as possible." On this website page he provides brief answers to basic questions such as:
SlowPlanet Links This page provides links to a number of websites related to the slow movement, for example Slow Cities, Slow Food International, Slow Thinking Movement.
David Suzuki Foundation
According to its website, the David Suzuki Foundation works "with government, business and individuals to conserve our environment by providing science-based education, advocacy and policy work, and acting as a catalyst for the social change that today's situation demands." Its mission "is to protect the diversity of nature and our quality of life." Its goals include protecting our climate, protecting and reconnecting with nature, transforming the economy ("make certain that Canadians can maintain a high quality of life within the finite limits of nature through efficient resource use"), and building community ("engage Canadians to live healthier, more fulfilled and just lives with tips on building Earth-friendly infrastructure, making smart energy choices, using efficient transportation, and being mindful of the products, food and water we use").s
Article on Understanding the Determinants of Health
Understanding the Determinants of Health: Key Decision Makers in Saskatchewan Health Districts and Saskatchewan Health, 1998 (Barbara R. Kahan, Michael S. Goodstadt. Canadian Journal of Public Health Volume 90, Supplement 1, S47-S52.)
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: As I was thinking about this month's jottings, I remembered the study mentioned above. One of the study's key findings was a gap between understanding and priority actions. In the resulting article, my co-author and I wrote: "The major policy implication of the present inquiry relates to the need for clear policies that foster consistency between beliefs and actions and minimize inappropriate or undesirable differences in interpretations."
Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research, 2nd Edition
Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research, 2nd Edition. Edited by Ralph J. DiClemente, Richard A. Crosby, Michelle Kegler. Published by Jossey-Bass, John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: This book is divided into three parts: individual-level approaches, community-based approaches, and ecological approaches. Included in the third section is a chapter on the IDM approach to best practices! The book is a feast of information and thought-provoking ideas.
References on Evidence-Based Practice and Practice-Based Evidence
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: This month's jottings comparing evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence are based on a brief preliminary review of the literature, primarily the following documents.
Expanding the Evidence for Health Promotion: Developing Best Practices for WISEWOMAN. Rosanne P. Farris, Dawn M. Haney, Diane O. Dunet. Journal Of Women's Health, Volume 13, Number 5, 2004.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: According to this article's abstract, "many programs have demonstrated success only in highly controlled research settings and few address the needs of low-income, uninsured, minority women." The article discusses "Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN), a demonstration program funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), that provides chronic disease risk factor screening and lifestyle interventions for low-income, 40-64-year-old women." The authors state that, "By emphasizing practicality in addition to scientific rigor, we are expanding the base of evidence considered to identify effective approaches for reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in financially disadvantaged, ethnically diverse women."
A Practical Guide for Engaging Stakeholders in Evaluation Questions Hallie Preskill and Nathalie Jones, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Evaluation Series 2009.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: This resource provides an overview of evaluation, discusses the value of including stakeholders in the development of evaluation questions, reviews challenges to engaging stakeholders, and describes five specific steps to involve stakeholders. It includes worksheets, a case example, and a set of evaluation resources.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: HealthKnowledge is an "online learning resource for Public Health practitioners, healthcare workers and all those wishing to increase their public health skills." It includes an online public health textbook, learning modules, and teaching resources. From a quick glance it looks really interesting and useful.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: This article, written by Stephen Bezruchka, was published in the CMAJ, September 1, 2009, 181 (5). It presents a fascinating discussion of the impact of the economy on health, illustrating how the impacts vary according to how equitably a country shares its resources. Examples of how the economic policies of different countries such as Japan, Cuba, and the US lead to different health outcomes are provided.
Dayna Albert, Manager of Towards Evidence-Informed Practice [TEIP] writes: I am pleased to report that TEIP has just completed and made available on our website a free online learning module (OLM2) Making Evidence Work for You which provides an audio-visual resource introducing practitioners to using the TEIP Program Evidence Tool. Access to OLM 2 can be reached through a link on our website home page or directly through this link. The tools which the learning module describes and explains can also be accessed from our website at this link.
Practitioners who have collected evidence using the TEIP Evidence Collection Spreadsheet are sharing the information with colleagues through the TEIP website. Visit here to access the Evidence Collections currently available
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: The website health-evidence.ca "aims to support evidence-informed decision making in public health by providing current research evidence in a searchable online registry... The health-evidence.ca team regularly searches for, screens, and rates systematic and narrative reviews, and meta-analyses from a variety of electronic and print sources." It has 21 categories, from "addiction/substance abuse" to "social determinants of health." The website also includes other resources such as tools to support evidence-informed decision making.
The Health Disparities Industry: Is it an Ethical Conundrum?, Mary Shaw-Ridley and Charles R. Ridley, Health Promotion Practice, July 2010, vol. 11 no 4 (454-464).
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: I highly recommend this article, which is a call to action for those of us working in the health field to examine:
The authors include, in what they name the health disparities industry, a range of institutions - from hospitals and universities to governments and professional associations. In a statement designed to warm the hearts of fans of the IDM's critically reflective approach, the authors write that health disparities industry stakeholders "who fail to observe and confront the fundamental causes of disparities risk oversimplifying, mystifying, or attributing erroneous properties to the complex web of human interactions with their environments and social conditions. The failure to contextualize observations inevitably results in misguided industry practices."
The authors indicate that the activities of the health disparities industry result in greater benefits to itself than to society. "We assert that some stakeholders may perceive that the very nature of the health disparities industry is to be self-serving and self-perpetuating - setting the stage for questions about the ethics of the industry." They recommend five industry practices "as good starting points for critical examination of industry ethics", for example "illusionary collaborations and partnerships."
The authors emphasize the importance of appropriate leadership, ethics, and quality assurance to rectify a situation where society does not prioritize root causes, which at one point in the article they identify as the "structural and social inequalities embedded in the nation's political, economic, and social climate."
Regina Community Plan 2007: A Home for All and Appendix IX: Review of Selected Reports and Research Related to Homelessness, prepared for the Regina Homelessness Committee by Barbara Kahan.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: Many, many people worked very hard to produce this IDM-compatible plan, which is based on a set of guidelines involving vision, values, beliefs, evidence, and an understanding of homelessness and housing issues. The plan includes long-term outcome objectives, activity objectives, and process objectives. The plan's Appendix IX provides a good overview for people interested in understanding more about housing and homelessness issues. This document review includes in its pages the following:
Beyond evidence - to ethics: a decision-making framework for health promotion, public health and health improvement, Andrew Tannahill, Health Promotion International, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp380-390.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: This is a great article for those interested in the interplay between evidence and ethics. It includes a list of possible ethical principles, with notes about each one, and a health improvement decision-making triangle, based on ethical principles, evidence and theory.
According to The Finance Project's website: "Since 1994, The Finance Project has identified, analyzed and disseminated information about promising initiatives that support and serve children, families and communities. It has documented these promising practices as examples of innovative programs that illustrate a variety of approaches to policy and program design, financing and sustainability."
The Catalog's search categories for policy and program areas include: children and family services (e.g. early care and education); children and youth at risk (e.g. mental health, substance abuse); economic success for families and communities (e.g. community development, family strengthening programs); education reform; financing strategies (e.g. making better use of existing resources); intermediary services; service delivery, government and management strategies; sustainability strategies. Other search criteria are also available, such as location in the US and "lead agency or primary partners."
Improving Health through Community Organization and Community Building Meredith Minkler, Nina Wallerstein and Nance Wilson, in Health Behavior and Health Educaion: Theory, Research and Practice, 4th Edition, edited by Karen Glanz, Barbara K. Rimer, K. Viswanath, edited by Jossey-Bass (A Wiley Imprint), San Francisco 2008.
This book chapter provides an overview of the history and practice of community organisation/community building, discusses key concepts such as "community" and issues related to evaluation, describes different models of community organisation/community building, and outlines a case study of the YES! (Youth Empowerment Strategies) Project.
Population Health, In Brief
Andrew Clairmont writes: Population Health, In Brief is CIHI's biweekly news digest focused on policies, programs and publications related to population health. [CIHI is the Canadian Institute for Health Information.] This product is relevant for those looking for:
To subscribe, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: CPHI is a program of the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). According to CPHI's news digest, Population Health, In Brief, CPHI explores "patterns of health within and between population groups to foster a better understanding of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities. We also seek out and summarize evidence about 'what works' at a policy and program level to contribute to the development of policies that reduce inequities and improve the health and well-being of Canadians." CPHI's priority themes are:
For more information, contact email@example.com.
Jeff Jocoy, International Awareness Coordinator for the Mesothelioma Center, writes: "With more than 3,000 pages of content, our site Asbestos.com features information on asbestos, mesothelioma, and other cancers that are caused by asbestos exposure (lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, etc.)...
"Asbestos.com has achieved HON code approval. (Health On the Net [HON] Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation that works to preserve the accuracy and trustworthiness of Web-based medical information.)
"Asbestos.com has employed a full staff of writers dedicated to research and writing about asbestos exposure and the diseases that result from exposure to the toxic mineral. In addition, our medical adviser and editor, Dr. Mauricio Salazar,M.D., who has worked in the field of cancer treatment for years, has personally reviewed, edited, and approved all medical information on our site."
A Public Health Approach to Violence Prevention:
A position paper and resolution adopted at the 1999 OPHA Annual General Meeting Ontario Public Health Association
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: The OPHA recognized violence as a public health issue in 1997. This position paper discusses key assumptions regarding violence and health, and how to address the issue of violence.
Why aren't we talking about income inequality?
A column by Jeffrey Simpson, published in The Globe and Mail, Saturday, October 29, 2011.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: This article asks such a critical question I couldn't resist choosing it for November's resource of the month.
According to its website, The CCPA "is an independent, non-partisan research institute concerned with issues of social, economic and environmental justice." The CCPA works "with top-notch researchers to shed light on the key issues facing Canada... We don't just analyze problems. We work on solutions - solutions that show Canadians' best values are not only possible, they're practical. These ideas are anchored by some basic principles: human dignity and freedom, fairness, equality, environmental sustainability, and the public good. They show that we can afford to build a more just and sustainable Canada - and that our economy will be stronger for it." Their publications are organized into a variety of topics dealing with social justice and the social determinants of health, such as Aboriginal issues, Children and youth, Education, Employment and labour, Environment and sustainability, Housing and homelessness, Inequality and poverty, Women's equality.
Reclaiming youth at risk: Our hope for the future (revised edition), by Brendtro, L., Brokenleg, M. and Van Bockern, S. (2002), Bloomimgton, IN: National Educational Service.
According to the website Reclaiming Youth International, this book "draws on early youth-work pioneers, Native tribal wisdom, and youth development research and outlines the four essential elements every child needs in order to flourish and thrive: belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity. Includes innovative approaches for building relationships with youth, fostering their self-esteem, and instilling positive values in classroom, residential treatment, counseling, and correctional settings. The Circle of Courage model has been adopted by hundreds of schools and programs in the U.S., Canada, and around the world."
The Canadian Council on Social Development (CCSD)
According to its website, CCSD is a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization whose mission is "to develop and promote progressive social policies inspired by social justice, equality and the empowerment of individuals and communities. We do this through research, consultation, public education and advocacy." The website lists resources such as research reports and other publications, has a Stats & Facts section which provides information on topics such as health and economic security, and has "sub sites" such as crime prevention through social development."
Sense of Community Belonging: Sex and Gender-based Analysis of this topic
This discussion on the website The Source: Women's Health Data Directory (sponsored by the British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health) is full of interesting snippets about community belonging, not restricted to sex and gender. For example, according to the website, "Age also affects a sense of community belonging; young adults may have a lower sense of belonging compared to older adults." Another example (citing Statistics Canada): "there was very little difference in reported sense of community belonging between people in middle, upper or high incomes" although people living in households with low incomes "reported a lower sense of community belonging compared to middle and upper income groups."
According to its website, InterChange "is a growing, united, and diverse community of community-based peacebuilders around the world who: build relationships; share knowledge, skills and experiences; collaborate on educational and research projects; and support one another with the aim of nurturing and developing dynamic, durable and positive peace." The website includes, among other things, its set of principles ("Ways in which we work that honour our values and beliefs"), a discussion on peace and peacebuilding, and links to useful resources.
Developing skills of reflection
This web page - Developing skills of reflection - is developed by the Learner Development Unit, Birmingham City University. It discusses the benefits of reflection, the process of reflecting, barriers to reflection, reflective skills and qualities, and reflection strategies. The discussion is short and useful!
How to Be an Effective Listener
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: How to Be an Effective Listener is Chapter 5 of the book Listening effectively (1996) by John A. Kline, published by Air University Press, Alabama. This chapter, according to the author, "offers practical suggestions on how to be a better listener." It is organized into three sections: what we think, feel and do about listening. It provides a good overview of how to listen well. Even though I have read a lot about listening, I enjoyed reading this chapter and learned some new strategies for improving my listening abilities.
Using a Comprehensive Best Practices Approach to Strengthen Ethical Health-Related Practice, by Barbara Kahan, published in Health Promotion Practice, July 2012 (vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 431-437).
This article outlines how to use the IDM best practices approach to increase ethical conduct. It discusses the ethical implications of key IDM tenets and ways to meet challenges that impede ethical practice.
Responsive evaluation in health promotion, by Tineke A. Abma, published in Health Promotion International Vol 20 No. 4.
Website editor Barbara Kahan writes: This article will be very useful for anyone involved in developing and conducting health promotion evaluations.
Problems viewing the site? Email: bkahan(at)sasktel(dot)net.